How a Bill becomes a Law
To obtain background information for a basic legislative history, there are a finite collection of documents that must be identified. These include such documents as:
- Introduced Bill
- Committee Prints
- Committee Reports
- Markups, Debates, Votes
- Enrolled Bill
- Public Laws
- Presidential Statements
Not all bills will generate all of the above documents. Some will generate multiple copies of a few documents. Some may generate documentation beyond the Legislative Branch of the government. In general, this set will give you a basis upon which to build your legislative history.
The route to the final goal -- the creation of a new Public Law -- is complicated and may create several of the above documents as the new bill proceeds on its way through congress. The basic life cycle of a bill looks (at its most basic) like this:
House --> HR # assigned, debates --> Sent to committee --> Sent back to House floor for debate & vote --> Sent to Senate.
Senate --> S # assigned, debates --> Sent to committee --> Sent back to Senate floor for debate & vote --> Sent toHouse.
After a bill is passed by both chambers of Congress, it -- the enrolled bill -- is sent to the President.
The President has three options when he receives a bill passed by Congress:
- The President may veto the bill.
- (A 2/3 majority of congress may vote to override any presidential veto, making a the bill a new Public Law.)
- The President may ignore the bill if Congress is within 10 days from end of current session.
- (A pocket veto.)
- The President may sign the bill, creating a new Public Law
After a bill is signed into law, it is given a unique ID number. The first two letters of this number are PL (for Public Law). The next set of numbers indicates the session of Congress during which the bill became law. The final set of numbers is a sequential number of all new public laws created during a particular session of Congress. For a bill which became the 232nd law during the 94th session of congress, the full identification number would be: PL-94-232.
After the new law receives its ID and is printed as an individual Slip Law, it is then printed in the official set of all laws of the United States, called Statutes at Large.
The citation for Statutes designates which volume of Statutes at Large the law is found followed by STAT, and includes the page number where the printed version of the law is found within the volume. A citation for a law printed in volume 74 of Statutes at Large and beginning on page 1273 would read as follows: 74 STAT 1273.
As most people do not refer to laws by the PL number during normal conversation, most laws are also given a popular name. The popular name may include the word act and may also include the date this act became a law. Popular names are useful in locating more specific information about a law.
For information on how to cite government documents, use the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation:
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a style guide, prescribes the most widely used legal citation system in the United States. The Bluebook is compiled by the Harvard Law Review Association, the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal. Currently, it is in its 19th edition. It is so named because its cover is blue.
A print copy of the Bluebook is available at the Reference Desk (3rd floor, entrance) of the Thompson Library, UM-Flint.
The General Priciples of Government Citation is available online from Lexis-Nexis: