"Fake News," Lies and Propaganda: How to Sort Fact from Fiction

Importance of a Free Press

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

The Bill of Rights, Amendment I of the U.S. Constitution

Need for Objective Reality

Trust in a shared objective reality is important to create a society with common ground.

University learning and research promote the value of empirical knowledge and the scientific method for understanding the world around us.

Keywords describing lack of trust in objective facts

  • Post-Truth
  • Truthiness
  • "Alternative Facts"

Trends and phenomena related to the impact of "fake news"

Some introductory sources are provided. The interested researcher is advised to conduct additional searches on these keywords and topics.

Propaganda and Psychological Information Warfare

Propaganda hinders effective democratic functioning and “results in the manipulation of the mob by the elite.”

Pratkanis, A. R., & Turner, M. E. (1996). Persuasion and democracy: Strategies for increasing deliberative participation and enacting social change. Journal of Social Issues, 52(1), 187–205. (UM-Flint Library Access

As cited in DiFonzo, N. (2010). Propaganda. In The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (UM-Flint Library Access)